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ARDMS Sonography Principles and Instrumentation Exam

Exam Name: Sonography Principles and Instrumentation
Exam Code: Sonography Principles and Instrumentation ARDMS SPI
Related Certification(s): ARDMS Registered Diagnostic Medical Sonographer Certification
Certification Provider: ARDMS
Number of Sonography Principles and Instrumentation practice questions in our database: 108 (updated: Jun. 09, 2024)
Expected Sonography Principles and Instrumentation Exam Topics, as suggested by ARDMS :
  • Topic 1: Perform Ultrasound Examinations: This topic discusses patient care, sonographic ergonomic techniques, echogenicity, reverberation, and potential bioeffects. It also discusses beam steering concepts, panoramic imaging, 3D/4D concepts, and contrast imaging concepts.
  • Topic 2: Manage Ultrasound Transducers: It delves into 2D array transducer concepts, 3D/4D transducer concepts, and nonimaging transducer concepts.
  • Topic 3: Optimize Sonographic Images: The topic focuses on optimization of axial resolution concepts, optimization of lateral resolution concepts, optimization of elevational resolution concepts, optimization of temporal resolution concepts, and magnification techniques.
  • Topic 4: Apply Doppler Concepts: It discusses Doppler wall filter concepts, Doppler sample gate concepts, y color priority over gray scale concepts, and concepts related to color Doppler map. Furthermore, it discusses concepts to eliminate aliasing, continuous wave Doppler concepts, and color Doppler scale concepts.
  • Topic 5: Provide Clinical Safety & Quality Assurance: This topic covers universal infection control protocols, QA check on ultrasound machine, transducer integrity, ultrasound machine integrity, and statistical parameter concepts.
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Free ARDMS Sonography Principles and Instrumentation Exam Actual Questions

Note: Premium Questions for Sonography Principles and Instrumentation were last updated On Jun. 09, 2024 (see below)

Question #1

What is the effect of an increased aperture in a linear array transducer?

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Correct Answer: A

The aperture of a transducer is the active area that emits and receives the ultrasound waves. In a linear array transducer, increasing the aperture (using more elements for transmission and reception) results in a deeper focus because the beam is more tightly focused over a longer distance. This improves lateral resolution at greater depths, as the ultrasound beam maintains a narrower width for a longer distance. It allows for better imaging of deeper structures without sacrificing resolution.


American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS). Sonography Principles and Instrumentation (SPI) Examination Review Guide.

Question #2

What happens to the Doppler shift when the angle is changed from 30 to 60 degrees?

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Correct Answer: D

The Doppler shift is directly related to the cosine of the angle between the ultrasound beam and the direction of blood flow. As the angle increases from 30 degrees to 60 degrees, the cosine of the angle decreases (cosine of 30 degrees is approximately 0.87, while cosine of 60 degrees is 0.5). Since the Doppler shift is proportional to the cosine of the angle, increasing the angle results in a decreased Doppler shift. This means the measured blood flow velocities will appear lower at a 60-degree angle compared to a 30-degree angle.


American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS). Sonography Principles and Instrumentation (SPI) Examination Review Guide.

Question #3

Which will affect the gray-scale of a 2-D image?

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Correct Answer: D

Dynamic range in ultrasound imaging affects the number of gray shades displayed in a 2-D image. Adjusting the dynamic range changes how echo signals are mapped to grayscale. A higher dynamic range means more shades of gray are displayed, providing a more detailed and softer image, which is useful for differentiating subtle tissue textures. Conversely, a lower dynamic range increases contrast by displaying fewer shades of gray, making the image appear more black and white. This adjustment is crucial for optimizing image quality based on the specific diagnostic needs.


American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS). Sonography Principles and Instrumentation (SPI) Examination Review Guide.

Question #4

Which factor improves axial resolution?

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Correct Answer: C

Axial resolution refers to the ability of an ultrasound system to distinguish between two structures that are close to each other along the path of the ultrasound beam. It is primarily determined by the spatial pulse length, which is the product of the wavelength and the number of cycles in a pulse. Shorter wavelengths result in shorter spatial pulse lengths, thereby improving axial resolution. This is because shorter wavelengths (which correspond to higher frequencies) allow for better differentiation between closely spaced structures along the beam's axis.


American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS). Sonography Principles and Instrumentation (SPI) Examination Review Guide.

Question #5

Which transducer was most likely used to create this image?

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Correct Answer: A

The image shown is typical of an abdominal ultrasound, which commonly utilizes a curvilinear transducer. Curvilinear transducers have a wider field of view at depth, making them ideal for imaging large structures within the abdomen. These transducers emit a curved beam, allowing for better penetration and a broader field of view, which is necessary for comprehensive abdominal examinations. The curvature of the image, the wide field of view, and the depth of penetration all suggest the use of a curvilinear transducer.


American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography (ARDMS). Sonography Principles and Instrumentation (SPI) Examination Review Guide.


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